Irish Writing: Exile and Subversion
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Simply link your Qantas Frequent Flyer membership number to your Booktopia account and earn points on eligible orders. Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! This is a collection of essays by international scholars which focuses on Irish writing in English from the 18th century to the present. The essays explore the recurrent motif of exile and the subversive potential of Irish writing in political, cultural and literary terms.
Case-studies of major writers such as Swift, Steele, Wilde, Yeats, Shaw, Joyce, Beckett and Heaney are set alongside discussions of relatively unexplored writing such as radical pamphleteering in the age of the French Revolution, rhetorical constructions of the Great Famine, and the contribution of women writers to Nationalistic journalism.
Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Acknowledgements - Notes on Contributors - Introduction; N. Sammells - Yeats, Exile and Childhood; D. Lyons - Parables of Estrangement: the Fiction of J. He first entered Newgate Prison in London for processing, then was moved to Pentonville Prison , where the "hard labour" to which he had been sentenced consisted of many hours of walking a treadmill and picking oakum separating the fibres in scraps of old navy ropes ,  and where prisoners were allowed to read only the Bible and The Pilgrim's Progress.
A few months later he was moved to Wandsworth Prison in London. Inmates there also followed the regimen of "hard labour, hard fare and a hard bed", which wore harshly on Wilde's delicate health. His right ear drum was ruptured in the fall, an injury that later contributed to his death.
Richard B. The transfer itself was the lowest point of his incarceration, as a crowd jeered and spat at him on the railway platform. About five months after Wilde arrived at Reading Gaol, Charles Thomas Wooldridge , a trooper in the Royal Horse Guards, was brought to Reading to await his trial for murdering his wife on 29 March ; on 17 June Wooldridge was sentenced to death and returned to Reading for his execution, which took place on Tuesday, 7 July — the first hanging at Reading in 18 years.
Wilde was not, at first, even allowed paper and pen but Haldane eventually succeeded in allowing access to books and writing materials. Between January and March Wilde wrote a 50,word letter to Douglas. He was not allowed to send it, but was permitted to take it with him when released from prison. His own estimation of himself was: one who "stood in symbolic relations to the art and culture of my age". The second half of the letter traces Wilde's spiritual journey of redemption and fulfilment through his prison reading.
He realised that his ordeal had filled his soul with the fruit of experience, however bitter it tasted at the time. I wanted to eat of the fruit of all the trees in the garden of the world And so, indeed, I went out, and so I lived. My only mistake was that I confined myself so exclusively to the trees of what seemed to me the sun-lit side of the garden, and shunned the other side for its shadow and its gloom.
Wilde was released from prison on 19 May  and sailed that evening for Dieppe, France. On his release, he gave the manuscript to Ross, who may or may not have carried out Wilde's instructions to send a copy to Douglas who later denied having received it.
The letter was partially published in as De Profundis ; its complete and correct publication first occurred in in The Letters of Oscar Wilde. Though Wilde's health had suffered greatly from the harshness and diet of prison, he had a feeling of spiritual renewal. He immediately wrote to the Society of Jesus requesting a six-month Catholic retreat; when the request was denied, Wilde wept. He spent his last three years impoverished and in exile.
His discussion of the dismissal of Warder Martin for giving biscuits to an anaemic child prisoner repeated the themes of the corruption and degeneration of punishment that he had earlier outlined in The Soul of Man under Socialism. Wilde spent mid with Robert Ross in the seaside village of Berneval-le-Grand in northern France, where he wrote The Ballad of Reading Gaol , narrating the execution of Charles Thomas Wooldridge , who murdered his wife in a rage at her infidelity.
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It moves from an objective story-telling to symbolic identification with the prisoners. Wilde juxtaposes the executed man and himself with the line "Yet each man kills the thing he loves". He adopted the proletarian ballad form and the author was credited as "C33", Wilde's cell number in Reading Gaol. Although Douglas had been the cause of his misfortunes, he and Wilde were reunited in August at Rouen. This meeting was disapproved of by the friends and families of both men. Constance Wilde was already refusing to meet Wilde or allow him to see their sons, though she sent him money — a meagre three pounds a week.
During the latter part of , Wilde and Douglas lived together near Naples for a few months until they were separated by their families under the threat of cutting off all funds. Pray do what you can" he wrote to his publisher. He wandered the boulevards alone and spent what little money he had on alcohol. Soon Wilde was sufficiently confined to his hotel to joke, on one of his final trips outside, "My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death.
One of us has got to go". Please come". By 25 November Wilde had developed meningitis , then called cerebral meningitis. Robbie Ross arrived on 29 November, sent for a priest and Wilde was conditionally baptised into the Catholic Church by Fr Cuthbert Dunne, a Passionist priest from Dublin,   Wilde having been baptised in the Church of Ireland and having moreover a recollection of Catholic baptism as a child, a fact later attested to by the minister of the sacrament, Fr Lawrence Fox.
As the voiture rolled through the dark streets that wintry night, the sad story of Oscar Wilde was in part repeated to me Robert Ross knelt by the bedside, assisting me as best he could while I administered conditional baptism, and afterwards answering the responses while I gave Extreme Unction to the prostrate man and recited the prayers for the dying. As the man was in a semi-comatose condition, I did not venture to administer the Holy Viaticum ; still I must add that he could be roused and was roused from this state in my presence.
When roused, he gave signs of being inwardly conscious Indeed I was fully satisfied that he understood me when told that I was about to receive him into the Catholic Church and gave him the Last Sacraments And when I repeated close to his ear the Holy Names, the Acts of Contrition , Faith, Hope and Charity, with acts of humble resignation to the Will of God, he tried all through to say the words after me.
Wilde died of meningitis on 30 November The modernist angel depicted as a relief on the tomb was originally complete with male genitalia, which were initially censored by French Authorities with a golden leaf. The genitals have since been vandalised; their current whereabouts are unknown. In , Leon Johnson, a multimedia artist, installed a silver prosthesis to replace them. The epitaph is a verse from The Ballad of Reading Gaol ,.
And alien tears will fill for him Pity's long-broken urn, For his mourners will be outcast men, And outcasts always mourn. In , Wilde was among an estimated 50, men who were pardoned for homosexual acts that were no longer considered offences under the Policing and Crime Act The Act is known informally as the Alan Turing law. Wilde's life has been the subject of numerous biographies since his death.
The earliest were memoirs by those who knew him: often they are personal or impressionistic accounts which can be good character sketches, but are sometimes factually unreliable.
Oscar Wilde and Myself , largely ghost-written by T. Crosland , vindictively reacted to Douglas's discovery that De Profundis was addressed to him and defensively tried to distance him from Wilde's scandalous reputation. Both authors later regretted their work. Of Wilde's other close friends, Robert Sherard ; Robert Ross , his literary executor; and Charles Ricketts variously published biographies, reminiscences or correspondence.
Oscar Wilde, a critical study by Arthur Ransome was published in In April Douglas lost the libel action after a reading of De Profundis refuted his claims. Often speculative in nature, it was widely criticised for its pure conjecture and lack of scholarly rigour. Robert Ross, 23 December . The book incorporates rediscovered letters and other documents and is the most extensively researched biography of Wilde to appear since Parisian literati, also produced several biographies and monographs on him. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 September This article is about the 19th-century author. For other uses, see Oscar Wilde disambiguation. Aesthetic movement Decadent movement. Constance Lloyd m. Cyril Holland Vyvyan Holland. Main article: The Picture of Dorian Gray. Main article: Salome play. Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas in Main article: The Importance of Being Earnest. When first I was put into prison some people advised me to try and forget who I was. It was ruinous advice. It is only by realising what I am that I have found comfort of any kind.
Now I am advised by others to try on my release to forget that I have ever been in a prison at all. I know that would be equally fatal. To regret one's own experiences is to arrest one's own development. To deny one's own experiences is to put a lie into the lips of one's own life. It is no less than a denial of the soul. Further information: De Profundis letter. See also: The Ballad of Reading Gaol. Main article: Oscar Wilde's tomb. Main article: Biographies of Oscar Wilde. Later on, I think everyone will recognise his achievements; his plays and essays will endure. Of course, you may think with others that his personality and conversation were far more wonderful than anything he wrote, so that his written works give only a pale reflection of his power.
Perhaps that is so, and of course, it will be impossible to reproduce what is gone forever. For a more comprehensive list, see Oscar Wilde bibliography. Mason, S. Apparently the editor liked the verse, so switched it to the other magazine so as to attain "a larger and better audience".
It was revised for inclusion in Poems the next year. In any case the Marquess of Queensberry came to believe his sons had been corrupted by older homosexuals or, as he phrased it in a letter in the aftermath of Drumlanrig's death: "Montgomerys, The Snob Queers like Rosebery and certainly Christian Hypocrite like Gladstone and the whole lot of you". Merlin Holland concludes that "what Queensberry almost certainly wrote was "posing somdomite [ sic ]". In , Wilde's son Vyvyan Holland published it again, including parts formerly omitted, but relying on a faulty typescript bequeathed to him by Ross.
Ross's typescript had contained several hundred errors, including typist's mistakes, Ross's "improvements" and other inexplicable omissions. He pressed our hands. I then went in search of a priest and with great difficulty found Fr Cuthbert Dunne, of the Passionists, who came with me at once and administered Baptism and Extreme Unction — Oscar could not take the Eucharist ".
Retrieved 3 April Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. The Unmasking of Oscar Wilde. Ann's Church website". Retrieved 15 May The Importance of Being Irish.
- Sammells, Neil.
- Irish Writing?
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- Categories. On Interpretation. Prior Analytics!
- The Bilateral Character of Exile and Otherness in Irish Literature.
PS Review of Freemasonry. Making Oscar Wilde. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 March Oscar Wilde in America. Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 12 August Woman's Journal. Retrieved 14 April Today in Literature. Regarding Wilde's visit to Leadville, Colorado, 24 December Saint James, Sussex Gardens, London.
Archived from the original on 8 January The Overlook Press. Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 27 January New York: HarperCollins. The Guardian. Retrieved 28 September The Picture of Dorian Gray. From Project Gutenberg transcription. October The Guardian London. Wilde, Oscar O'Flahertie Wills — , author.
National Archives. Retrieved 12 March An ideal husband. Act III: London: typescript with extensive autograph revisions, The Homosexual ity of law. Oscar Wilde: The Unrepentant Years. Harvard University Press. Carson the Advocate. London: Macmillan. Carson had again and again used the word "pose" with ironic emphasis. Hartlepool Mail. British Newspaper Archive.
Bloomington, Indiana. Cambridge University Press. Oscar Wilde. New York: Alfred A. X, Ignatius Press, The New York Times. Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 24 July The Daily Telegraph. Quirky Travel Guy. Retrieved 28 July We The People.
Retrieved 22 February National Book Critics Circle. The Pulitzer Prizes. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2 April The Times.
Retrieved 5 February In Memoriam, Oscar Wilde. Paris: Editions Mercure De France. L'esprit d'Oscar Wilde. Collection Anglia 4th ed. Paris: G. Paris: Editions Christian de Bartillat. L'affaire Oscar Wilde ou Du danger de laisser la justice mettre le nez dans nos draps. Paris: Editions Albin Michel. Breen, Richard London: Penny Publishing Limited. Belford, Barbara Oscar Wilde: A Certain Genius.
New York: Random House. Clayworth, Anna Summer Victorian Periodicals Review. Coakley, Davis Dublin: Town House. Cox, Devon London: Frances Lincoln. Ellmann, Richard New York: Vintage Books. Foldy, Michael, S. Igoe, Vivien London: Methuen. Holland, Merlin; Rupert Hart-Davis, eds. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Holland, Merlin, ed. The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde. London: Harper Collins. Holland, Merlin The Real Trial of Oscar Wilde.
Hyde, H. Famous Trials: Oscar Wilde. Baltimore: Penguin Books. Oscar Wilde: The Aftermath. New York: Farrar Straus Ltd. Kiberd, Declan Kiberd, D. Irish Classics. Dublin, a Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press. Mason, Stuart ; new ed. Rota pub; Haskell House Pub. Morley, Sheridan Raby, Peter, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Oscar Wilde. London: Cambridge University Press. Ransome, Arthur Oscar Wilde: A Critical Study. New York: Mitchell Kennerly. Ross, Alex. Retrieved 3 August Stern, Simon The Review of English Studies.
Sandulescu, C. George, ed. Rediscovering Oscar Wilde. Gerrards Cross, England: C. Oscar Wilde at Wikipedia's sister projects. Associated subjects. John Gray " The Oval Portrait ". Oscar Wilde 's The Canterville Ghost.